Offer some general comments on the value of reading out loud
Suggest some DOs and DON'Ts for listeners
Outline a couple of specific read aloud strategies
1. Some general comments on the value of oral reading
As an instructional strategy oral reading has some clear advantages:
- Anyone can do it
- It ensures that the child reads a specific number of words each day
- For the skilled listener (usually a trained teachers) it acts as a 'window on the reading process' allowing us to understand what strategies children are using, misusing, not using, what help they need, etc (more on this later)
- It is an opportunity to build confidence and self esteem
- It is slower than silent reading
- The proficient reader does most reading silently, so this is the key reading skill we're working towards (with the exception that skilled audience reading does have a place and needs to be developed later) so it shouldn't be a total replacement for silent reading
- It is teacher or parent intensive compared to silent reading (oral reading is mostly one-to-one or in small groups rather than individual)
- It can be a source of frustration for the child and can lead to a loss of confidence and self esteem if the listener is unskilled
2. Some DOs and DON'Ts
Here is my outline of what to do and NOT to do.
- Don't make unfavourable comparisons between the child you're listening to and another child. Avoid statements like "How come Jason can read that word but you can't?"
- Don't feel that you need to correct every error, or teach every sound that your child seems to struggle with. Listening to your child is not just an accuracy test. Besides, if your child struggles on more than 5 words on a page then the book is too hard for them (see below).
- Don't ever ridicule your child as they read.
- Don't make the sessions too long (10-15 minutes is ideal). It's better to have two short sessions than one that is too long.
First 4 basic DOs to keep in mind:
DO Relax - try to make it fun and enjoyable for you and the child. The experience should strengthen your relationship, not weaken it.
DO choose a good time & place - choose a good time when your child is fresh and you are feeling patient and perhaps less stressed. If it has to be after school give your child something to eat and drink and let them relax or play for a while first. And make sure you choose a quiet place without distractions.
DO select books carefully - choose the books well. Hopefully the book will be at the right level, and the child will enjoy it. If the books are boring speak to the child's teacher and try to substitute another book. For help on getting the level right see the "5 finger test" below.
DO encourage your child and praise them - the purpose of the session is to help, encourage and build confidence, not test, frustrate and shatter confidence.
Now 5 more specific DOs
DO talk about the book first - read the title, look at the book, ask if he or she has read it before, ask what they think it's about etc. Maybe even read the first page for your child.
DO let the child hold the book (it's more natural and gives them a sense of being in charge).
DO talk about the book after reading (not as a test, just as a chat).
DO show patience, progress can be slow.
DO help them as they read but don't labour any teaching moment. If they can't get the sound "oar" give them the word after a few attempts and read on. You can come back to this sound on another occasion. Remember that fluency is important for your child to gain meaning from what they are reading and for building confidence. Teachers can give more support as part of oral reading because they're trained to know what to look for and how to offer many different forms of support. For parents, if you're in doubt give them the word and read on.
3. Some associated strategies
(i) The 5 Finger Technique
This is a basic way to make sure the reading material is at the right level. This is how it is done:
- Choose the book your child will read (or have them choose one from a range of books).
- Choose a typical page towards the middle of the book (with lots of words and not too many pictures).
- Begin to read and each time your child comes to a word that they don't know, hold up one finger.
- If you end up with five fingers before the end of the page stop reading the book and choose another one.
- If you have no fingers up by the end of the page then it’s probably too easy, if you have one or two then it’s probably the right level.
This is a strategy I suggest for parents and untrained listeners (like older reading buddies). As a general rule, oral reading should privilege fluency, with errors only being corrected when they break down the meaning. If your child makes errors based on problems with lack of phonic skills or due to poor word recognition skills, it is best to note the problem and come back to them at the end of the story. You might also like to keep a record of such problems in an exercise book; not as a record of failure, but to note areas that need help, to plot your child's progress and as a means to offer encouragement when they overcome problems after practice.
With Pause-Prompt-Praise the only mistakes corrected during the reading are those that get in the way of meaning.
If your child makes a mistake use this simple technique:
PAUSE - after your child makes a mistake for about 3 seconds and say nothing, they may self-correct.
PROMPT - If you child doesn't self-correct either give them the word or offer a prompt (e.g. give them the sound that they are struggling with; help them to sound it out; get them to re-read the sentence)
PRAISE - Encourage your child by praising the fact that they have finished the page, had a go at a difficult word, had no or few errors, read fluently, and seemed to understand what it was about.
(iii) Miscue Analysis
Professor Ken Goodman at the University of Arizona developed Miscue Analysis. It was later refined with his wife Professor Yetta Goodman. Ken Goodman discovered that if you analyse reading errors (he prefers the term "miscue") that they provide a 'window' into the reading process. I share it here as a reminder for teachers and as an insight into the complexity of the reading process for parents. Goodman found that when you analyse miscues carefully you could come to understand what strategies children are using (in their heads) to read. These he found fall into three main categories:
- word-based strategies (identifying the word by sight, using phonic strategies to sound out words);
- syntax or grammar (predicting the next word based on the logical grammar or flow of the sentence);
- semantics (meaning-based strategies; does the word make sense in this sentence or passage?).
Original Text - Bill ran across the road to get the ball
- Reading 1 - Bill runned over the road to get the ball (a problem primarily of syntax showing itself in the addition of a suffix)
- Reading 2 - Bill can over the road to get the ball (a problem with word recognition and a failure to use syntax)
- Reading 3 - Bill ran across the toad to get the ball (a problem with under-use of semantics as well as a miscue on the initial consonant of road)
(iv) Running Records
Running records is a simpler technique developed by Dame Marie Clay who was a New Zealand educator who developed the Reading Recovery program. It is still primarily a tool for teachers to use to make sense of mistakes that readers make during reading. Because of its use as part of Reading Recovery the technique tends to have been used in three main ways: to assess an appropriate starting level for instruction; as a way to assess a child's strengths and weaknesses as a reader; as a tool integral to the teaching process. I may do a post on the technique later but I've provided a couple of useful links below that should help.
Oral reading can be a wonderful tool for encouraging reading development and a positive way for parents to help their children. It can also be a way to reinforce failure and frustration. Use it carefully. One final comment. Remember that oral reading should rarely be used as a test by teachers and virtually never should be used in this way by parents. It's a way to provide practice, feedback and encouragement. Make sure that you choose books wisely (the Five Finger Technique should help). Don't provide material that is too hard (this will breed failure and frustration) and don't use material that is too easy (this won't help them to learn new things).
Teachers can find all of the above strategies and lots more in relation to parent support in my book Beyond Tokenism: Parents as partners in literacy. This book was written for teachers to offer advice on how they can help parents to support their children at home.
For a more detailed outline of ways to support the beginning reader beyond just listening to them you can consult my website here.
Teachers can find a good introduction to Running Records here and a more detailed teachers description of the technique here.
For a more detailed description of Miscue Analysis click here and Ken Goodman's work here.